Extraction Of Crude Metal From Concentrated Ore
The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction. Usually the oxides are easier to reduce. Thus isolation of metals from concentrated ore involves two steps:
1. Conversion to an oxide
Two methods of oxidation are:
Calcinaton involves heating when the volatile matter escapes leaving behind the metal oxide. eg
The ore is heated in a regular supply of air in a furnace at a temperature below the melting point of the metal.
2. Reduction of oxide to the metal
Reduction of the metal oxide usually involves heating it with some other substance acting as a reducing agent. The reducing agent combines with the oxygen of the metal oxide.