Extraction Of Crude Metal From Concentrated Ore

By Kunal Kapoor

The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction. Usually the oxides are easier to reduce. Thus isolation of metals from concentrated ore involves two steps: 

1. Conversion to an oxide

Two methods of oxidation are:

a. Calcination
Calcinaton involves heating when the volatile matter escapes leaving behind the metal oxide. eg

b. Roasting

The ore is heated in a regular supply of air in a furnace at a temperature below the melting point of the metal.

2. Reduction of oxide to the metal

Reduction of the metal oxide usually involves heating it with some other substance acting as a reducing agent. The reducing agent combines with the oxygen of the metal oxide.

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