Expressing Concentration Of Solutions

There are several properties by which the concentration of the solution can be described : 

1. Mass percentage (w/w):
Mass percentage of a component = ( Mass of the component in the solution X 100 ) / Total mass of the solution

2. Volume percentage (V/V):
Volume percentage of a component = ( Volume of the component X 100 ) / Total volume of solution

3. Mass by volume percentage (w/V) :
Mass by volume percentage of a component = ( Mass of the component in the solution X 100 ) / Total volume of solution

4. Parts per million :
When a solute is present in limited quantities, it is expressed as concentration in parts per million (ppm)
Parts per million ( ppm ) = ( Number of parts of the component X 10^6) / Total number of parts of all components of the solution

5. Mole fraction :
Mole fraction of a component = ( Number of moles of the component ) / Total number of moles of all the components

6. Molarity :
Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimeter) of solution
M = ( Moles of solute) / Volume of solution in litre

7. Molality:
Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent
m = ( Moles of solute ) / Mass of solvent in kg

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